Most consumers do not grasp the difference between the price and the value of a product or service. Price is simply the amount of money paid or charged for something. When we focus on price, we are focusing on the short-term acquisition of a product. Value, on the other hand, focuses on the long-term aspect of the purchase.
Price is what a buyer spends, and value is what they receive in the transaction. When a buyer has received more value from a product than what they spent, this purchase is viewed as possessing great value. If a buyer values your product and can find a solution to his problem with your product more than he values his money, then he will purchase your product. People who focus on cost focus on the total cost of ownership, but people who focus on value focus on the total picture and how the product will create a solution.
Now, how can we compute value in real estate and specifically multifamily real estate? There are basically three methods of calculating real estate value: the cost approach, the sales approach, and the income approach. The sales approach is widely used in valuing single family homes, and the cost approach is utilized for properties that have few comps and for new properties (such as a church or school). Let’s focus on the income method, which utilizes the net operating income and cap rates to determine the property’s value. This is by far the best method to analyze apartments.
This may explain why strategies such as wholesaling and fix and flipping are extremely popular to investors. These strategies employ much shorter time horizons than multifamily investments. A wholesaler can earn a profit in a matter of weeks, while a multifamily investor usually needs to dedicate a much longer time horizon to execute his business plan to generate his return.
There are other challenges that investors encounter when deciding upon multifamily investments, such as lack of capital or lack of experience, but I feel that not being able to focus on the long-term dissuades many investors from multifamily investing.
If you understand the value and the various benefits that multifamily offers, the decision of delayed gratification will be a no-brainer. So what are the benefits of multifamily, and how do we determine the value?
6 Benefits of Investing in Multifamily Real Estate
Here is a list of benefits:
Now that you’ve seen the incredible benefits that the multifamily space provides, how do you calculate value? In multifamily investing, it is all about the net operating income (NOI) of the property and the fact that the investor is purchasing the property based on an income stream. Let me provide you with a few definitions:
Operating ExpensesCosts that are incurred to maintain and run a property. Some examples include trash, snow plowing, and pest control.
Capital ExpendituresAn expenditure for an asset that will improve or extend the useful life of an existing asset for a period to exceed one year. Some examples include water heaters, driveways, roofs and A/C units. I like to set aside $250 per unit per year in a cap ex account to address these “repairs.”
You may have to set aside a larger amount, depending upon the age and condition of the property. The cap ex figure falls below the net operating income, so it does not affect the value of the asset, but it will certainly affect your cash flow, i.e. the money you put in your pocket!
Net Operating IncomeAnnual income generated from a property less total operating expenses.
Cap RateThe rate of return on an investment property based on the income. Cap rates are specific to a market and are affected by the type of property class (A, B, C, D) you are investing in. A broker should be able to tell you the cap rate in his market.
Example of a Successful Multifamily Reposition
Let me give you a quick example of a reposition on one of our assets and different types of value-adds we instituted. We purchased a property that had rents that were well below market, and many units that were vacant. Our goal was to address desperately needed deferred maintenance, while filling the vacant units.
We eventually filled all the vacant units and increased the rent rates on the current tenants from $450 per month to $625 per month. In a span of 12 months, revenue exploded from $53,000 per month to over $90,000 per month. In this example, we were able to increase the value of the property from $4.1 million to just over $6.3 million in only 12 months!
Examples of Value-Adds
Potential value-add items might include:
This is the beauty in multifamily real estate. You have the ability to increase the value of your asset by employing sound management principles to increase the NOI, thereby increasing the value.
How to Calculate Multifamily Value Using Cap Rates
Now let’s tackle how you calculate the value of a property using cap rates. You would take the NOI of a property and divide it by the cap rate.
NOI/Cap Rate = Value
For instance, if the property had an NOI of $150,000 and the cap rate was 6, the property value would be $2,500,000 (150,000/.06). If the NOI increased to $180,000, the value would increase to $3,000,000. A $30,000 increase in NOI generated a $500,000 increase in value.
Cap rates have an inverse relationship with market value. When cap rates compress, as we are witnessing in the current real estate market, the value increases — and vice versa. It’s fantastic when you own property and cap rates are falling, but a real bummer when you are trying to invest. The formula for cap rates is:
NOI/Price = Cap Rate
For example, if the property had an NOI of $50,000 and was listed for $500,000, then the cap rate would be 10 ($50,000/$500,000).
Our strategy is to purchase assets based on actual numbers. We ask the seller to provide us with the last 12 months of income and expense figures, as well as the rent roll. Once you purchase on actuals, your job is to go to work on the NOI. In life, it’s not what you buy but what you pay that is critical to the success of any investment.
My goal in this article has been to describe what “value” is, why some investors are hesitant to jump into multifamily investing, the benefits of investing in this asset class, how to analyze a multifamily property and how to implement value-adds to an investment. Remember, at the end of the day, it’s all about the income versus the expenses.